Atma Jaya

Anti - Metalloproteinase - 9 Activities of Selected Indonesian Zingiberaceae Rhizome Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide - Induced Human Vascular Endothelial Cells in Vitro

Anti-Metalloproteinase-9 Activities of Selected Indonesian Zingiberaceae

Rhizome Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Human

Vascular Endothelial Cells In Vitro



Biology Program, Faculty of Biotechnology, Atma Jaya Catholic University,

Jakarta 12930, Indonesia



Problem statement: Atherosclerosis is associated with chronic inflammation triggered by bacterial infection that activates the breakdown of extracellular matrix protein by matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs). Zingiberaceae, a group of tropical food crops grown in Indonesia and other Southeast Asia regions, has been traditionally used for food coloring, seasoning, culinary and medicinal purposes. However, its efficacy as natural vascular protection has not been explored.


The research was aimed to investigate the effects of 10 Indonesian Zingiberaceae rhizome extracts on inhibition of MMP-9 expression in human vascular endothelial cells treated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro by conducting gelatin zymogram, Western blotting and RT-PCR assays.


LPS (2 μg mL−1) significantly elevated the expression of MMP-9 secretion, protein and mRNA in the vascular endothelial cells. Selected Zingiberaceae exctracts (5 μg mL−1), i.e., Curcuma xanthorrhiza, C. aeruginosa, C. mangga, C. longa, Kaempferia galanga, Alpinia galanga and Zingiberaceae officinale, effectively attenuated the expression of MMP-9 secretion, protein and mRNA in LPS-induced vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, MMP-9 expression was specifically blocked by MAPK inhibitors, i.e., PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), indicating that MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways are involved in regulation of MMP-9 gene expression in LPS-induced vascular endothelial cells.


These results suggest that selected Indonesian Zingiberaceae rhizomes with potent MMP-9 inhibitory activity may scientifically offer the promising therapeutic target in vascular diseases, particularly atherosclerosis.


Key words: Zingiberaceae rhizomes, anti-metalloproteinase-9 activity, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), vascular endothelial cells, atherosclerotic plaque, pathological processes, extracellular matrix protein, zingiberaceae plant, cell viability.

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